Hot peppers are most easily grown from transplants. Start hot pepper seed indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the date you intend to set peppers into the garden. Peppers can be seeded in the garden or transplanted out 2 to 3 weeks after the last frost in spring after the soil temperature has risen to at least 65°F. Hot peppers grow best where the air temperature ranges from 70° to 95°F. Hot peppers mature in 60 to 95 days.

Peppers are tender perennials that are grown as annuals. Peppers grow on compact erect bushes 1½ to 2 feet tall. The fruit follows a single flower growing in the angle between the leaf and the stem. Hot peppers can range in length from 1 to 7 inches long and in color from green to red to gold and yellow.

Hot peppers vary greatly in spiciness. Choose peppers and the number to plant according to how you plan to use them.

Grow peppers in full sun in soil that is rich in organic matter, moisture retentive but well draining. Peppers prefer a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8. Work aged garden compost into beds prior to planting. The optimal soil temperature for peppers is 65°F or warmer.

Planting time
Hot peppers grow best in air temperatures 70° to 95°F. Peppers are most easily grown from transplants. Start seed indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the date you intend to set peppers into the garden. Peppers can be seeded in the garden or transplanted out 2 to 3 weeks after the last frost in spring after the soil temperature has risen to at least 65°F. In temperatures greater than 85°F, peppers may drop their blossoms although set fruit will ripen. Hot peppers tolerate hot weather better than sweet peppers.

Planting and spacing
Sow hot pepper seed ½ inch deep, 18 to 24 inches apart. Space rows 24 to 36 inches apart. Sow two seeds to each spot and thin to the most successful seedling. Peppers can be transplanted into the garden when they are 4 to 6 inches tall.

Water and feeding. Keep peppers evenly moist but not wet particularly when blossoms appear and fruit begin to form. Soil that goes too dry can result in flower drop. Add aged compost to planting beds before planting and again at midseason. Water more frequently after the fruit forms. Water heavily 4 to 8 hours before harvest to turn hot peppers more mild; withhold watering before harvest to make hot peppers hotter.

Companion plants
Beets, garlic, onions, parsnips, radishes.

Keep planting beds well weeded to avoid competition. Peppers are shallow-rooted, so cultivate around peppers with care. Mulch to keep soil temperature and moisture even.

Avoid high nitrogen fertilizers which will create large leafy plants with few or no fruits. High temperatures and wind can cause flowers to drop and plants not to set fruit.

Plastic mulch can improve pepper yields. Organic compost mulches will reduce weeding and watering, but not fruit yields.

Use shade cloth to protect peppers from sunburn if the temperature exceeds 105°F.

Container growing
Peppers can be grown in a large container. An 8-inch pot will accommodate a single plant. In larger containers, set plants on 12 inch centers. Peppers can be grown indoors. Peppers started indoors before the last frost in spring will get a head start on the season. Extend the season in the fall by moving plants indoors if frost threatens or if temperatures warm to greater than 90°F. Bring outdoor started peppers inside for a few hours a day at first until they get used to the lower light available indoors.

Peppers can be attacked by aphids, cutworms, flea beetles, and hornworms. Discourage cutworms by placing a collar around each transplant at the time of planting; hand pick hornworms off of plants. Flea beetles and aphids can be partially controlled by hosing them off the plants and pinching out infested foliage.

Peppers are susceptible to rot, blossom end rot, anthracnose, tobacco mosaic virus, bacterial spot, and mildew. Plant disease-resistant varieties. Keep the garden clean and free of weeds where pests and diseases can shelter. Remove infected plants before disease can spread. If you smoke, wash your hands before working with the plants to avoid spreading tobacco mosaic virus.

Hot peppers are ready for harvest in 60 to 95 days after sowing. Pick hot peppers when they have reached full size and their mature color. Cut the peppers off the vine. Pulling a pepper away from the plant may cause the plant to come out of the soil.

Cara membuat perangsang akar organik

Ramuan perangsang akar organik
RPAT (Ramuan Penumbuh Akar dan Tunas ) yang insyaallah bisa digunakan untuk oles juga rendam batang stek,cangkok juga benih dan bibit agar pertumbuhan akar dan tunas lebih terpacu.
Bahan bahannya : 1kg daun aloevera,1/2kg kunyit,5ltr air kelapa,1kg tauge, dan 200ml madu.
Blender dan campur semua bahan dan rebus hingga mendidih ,biarkan sampai dingin lalu saring,
Cara pakenya : Oleskan dosis murni ke bidang stek dan cangkok,biarkan kering angin lalu tancep stek atau kasih media tuh cangkok.
Untuk rendam dan semprot biji,benih, bibit dan stek encerkan dgn dosis 20ml/L . Perendaman -+15menit.
Untuk hasil yg lebih baik dan bisa dipake berulang ulang, sterilisasi RPAT dgn autoclave atau presto diakhir proses pembuatannya dan penyimpanan sebaiknya di kulkas.


Are you learning to grow your own sweet, juicy tomatoes? Luckily for you, tomato plants can grow almost anywhere that is warm and a little damp. But as with most vegetation that produce a fruit, a little TLC goes a long way. With adequate sunlight, water, and patience, you’ll be greatly rewarded with a six foot tall tomato plant with big (or cherry size), red (or other heirloom colors), juicy tomatoes! Tomatoes take a long time to grow so you must have great patience, but you won’t need much else to get your tomato plant growing.

Part One of Three:
Planting the Tomatoes
Buy small tomato plants from a nearby nursery. Whether you’re a first-time grower or simply prefer the simplicity of working with seedlings, your easiest option will be to purchase a tomato seedling in your desired variety and transplant it into your garden.
Don’t pay extra to buy the larger plants; there is not much reason, unless you are getting a “latish” start, to catch up.
More experienced gardeners will likely find it easy enough to start their own tomatoes from seed, however, so you can still keep this option in mind.
If you do raise your own plants from seed, start them in a greenhouse or sunny window indoors about a month before you intend to set them out in the garden.
Use fluorescent lights or other lighting hanging a couple inches (5cm) above the planting flat and keep raising it as the plants grow–in a not well lighted room. Raise these plants until they are about 6 to 10 inches tall (15 to 25cm) and then transplant them when spring weather is appropriate for your zone.
Choose an easy-to-grow variety. This is especially recommended if you’re new to gardening. Options include Better Boy, Creole, Big Boy, Early Girl, Brandy Wine, Celebrity, Lemon Boy, or just about any cherry or grape tomato variety.
Consider planting several varieties rather than all of one type — this ensures a steady harvest
Grow two plants for each member of the family who eats tomatoes. If you plan on canning tomatoes or making fresh and canned salsa, use up to four plants per person.
Plants usually cost US $4 for one 8 inch (20cm) pot, or you can buy 6 small plants in 6 plant packs of 1 & 1/4 inch (3cm) compartmental trays.
Choose a sunny spot to place transplants. Place tomato plants in a site receiving full sun (7 hours or more daily). Tomatoes need lots of warm sunshine for optimum taste.
Caveat: In hot climates when the nights get to a low temperature of about 75°F (24°C), most tomatoes “quit setting new fruit.” The ones already set will grow great. But none will set when nights are very warm through the wee hours really near sunrise.
Don’t wait more than a few days late to put them out past the recommended dates for your climate zone, or it may be too late (if there are such early warm/hot weather nights).
Add lots of well rotted compost to the garden soil. You’ll need about 5 to 8 pounds per square foot/25 to 40 kilograms per square meter. Turn compost into the top 3 inches (6 to 8 cm). Tomatoes demand a growing medium rich in organic matter. If you don’t make your own compost, use store-bought compost or composted manure available in the 40-pound bags. Compost or Manure is usually less than US $5 per 40-pound bag.
Transplant the tomato deeply. Bury about 50 to 75% of the plant (especially for leggy plants, that became skinny in raising them before transplanting).[1] It’s okay to bury some of its lower leaves. New roots will emerge along the buried stem, giving the plant a developmental boost; a new transplant needs to focus on root production.
Water within 10 minutes of transplanting. Give each plant about 1 gallon (about 4 litres) of warm water (about 80 degrees F/ 27 degrees C) within ten minutes of transplanting to avoid transplant shock.
Space tomato plants 18 to 36 inches (45 to 90 cm) apart. Space them half the suggested distance in warmer climates, especially if using tomato cages. The normal distance recommended is for plants allowed to bush out hugely on the ground, while planting closer together in cages allows the plants to shade each others fruit, helping prevent burn and allowing a sweeter flavor.
Don’t forget to leave yourself enough space to get in between the plants to water, weed, and harvest. Those cute, little seedlings may not remain that way for long.

Part Two of Three:
Water after the first 7 to 10 days. Starting after the first week, give the tomatoes about 16 ounces (about 500 ml) of warm water per plant every day.
Drip or soaker hose watering is better than overhead, which can encourage diseases that tomatoes are particularly prone to.
Space water out more after 10 days and ensure that plants are receiving 1 to 3 inches (2.5 cm to 7.6 cm) of rain weekly. If not, give each plant about 2 gallons (about 7.5 litres) per plant “per week”, beginning by about the end of the second week after transplanting.
Water deeply 2 to 3 times weekly (so, water each plant with about .75 to 1 gallon each time (about 3 to 4 litres), increase water as the plants get larger and when weather is hotter.
It’s okay in hot or dry weather to water even more frequently with larger volumes.
After one or two week, surround the plants with a mulch of straw, dried grass, or pine needles. This should control weeds and keep the soil moist during dry weather. The mulch should be about an inch (2.5 cm) thick and surround at least a circle 12 inches (about 30 cm) in diameter around the stem. Pine needles are especially good for helping raise the acidity of the soil.
Caution: Do ‘not keep the soil continuously wet or “soggy”. That will kill (smother) the roots and will cause a stem disease (fungus) especially once it is really warm/or hot weather.
Choose whether to use chemical fertilizers. Do not use lawn fertilizer. The ratio of minerals in lawn fertilizer is for growing stems and leaves. Look for a vegetable fertilizer which is for stimulating fruit. Tomatoes can grow very well organically, provided the soil is well enriched with organic matter. If you do use chemical fertilizers, try using half the recommended concentration per gallon (using package directions), but fertilize twice as often, in order to avoid the stress caused by the feast-famine of the longer fertilization gaps.
Over-fertilization can cause plants to grow too quickly, leaving them more susceptible to disease and insects.
Remember that your goal in growing tomatoes is fruit, not just leaves. Fertilizers, especially when used in excess, or the wrong kind may cause the plant to produce more leaves and foliage than fruit
Consider using a tomato cage or a tall stake to support the tomato vine. You can set these up at the time of planting, or you can wait about 14 days after transplanting.
A stake should be at least 0.5 x 2 inches (1.3 x 5cm) boards and 6 to 8 feet (1.8 to 2.4 meters) long. Pound stakes about 12 to 24 inches (30 cm to 60 cm) deep, at least 2 inches (5 cm) away from the plant. Secure the plant to the stake using “loosely knotted double-loops” that won’t strangle the plant. Stakes can be made of bamboo, scrap wood, electrical conduit, or iron bar.
While it is less common, “vining” type tomato plants can be tied onto a trellis or fence, like grapes, beans, squash, and other vining plants. This can produce especially large yields, but vining is less popular because tomato plants grow so large and bulky (some are called “indeterminate” but are not vines, and the third kind are “determinate” type are shrub-like plants).
A determinate tomato plant grows to a certain (determined), limited size and then stops or at least slows its growth greatly. An indeterminate plant keeps growing and spreading out.
A cage should be at least 48 inches (1.2 m) tall, even taller if you grow the plant well. Tying plants is unneeded. Some tomato plants can be more than six feet (1.8 m) tall in cages (you may need to stake and tie the cage to the stakes). Cages have a tendency to bend if the plants get heavy, and sometimes collapse in summer storms. Carefully pull leaves and secondary stems inside the cage as the plant grows.
Make your own tomato cages, if you like. Get a roll of 4 feet height (1.25 M) “welded-wire” garden fencing 2″ X 4″ rectangular openings (5cm X 10cm) garden fencing with — or 4″ square openings (10cm) — and soon you can make it double height, tied to more stakes, so wind will not knock them over as plants climb. Roll it into 18 inch wide (45cm) cylinders to make your own, larger cages. Cut and bend the wire ends around the uncut wires on the opposite end, making a circle. This type of cage needs strong stakes well tied for support.
Shake your plant poles or cages gently once or twice each week. Do so for about 5 seconds, and start this practice once flowering begins to promote pollination of the blossoms (from one flower to another). According to the National Gardening Association, shaking the tomato plant increases fruit production by more evenly distributing pollen.

Part Three of Three:
Watch for fruit to appear 45 to 90 days after transplanting. On average, you’ll need to wait about 60 days. Tomato plants usually have small, green fruit to start. Wait until the fruit is of good size with a bright, deep coloring: this means that the fruit is ripe and ready to pick. The texture of the fruit can also determine when it is ready to pick. Ripeness is usually determined by a slight softness. Be careful to only “palm the tomatoes”; do not squeeze with the finger tips and bruise the fruit.
Also, be careful of not allowing it to become overly ripe, which results in a very soft tomato.
Realize that birds, possums, raccoons and some dogs will take ripened tomatoes, corn and sweet green peppers, etc.
Pick fruit earlier to ripen indoors if you like. Fruit may be picked any time after it starts changing to its ripe color and set on a sunny windowsill. This will reduce the chances of it rotting on the vine or being eaten by a bird or squirrel.
Tomatoes do, however, taste sweeter when ripened on the vine, so you need to balance risk of threats versus taste.
Place a “zip-” of “snap-” seal sandwich type of bag over the nearly ripe fruit. Work very carefully, starting from the bottom up onto the stem. This should protect ripening tomatoes from predators.
Close the bag from both sides at the top, above the fruit, coming near the stem, leaving about 1/4″ (.6cm) on each side for air flow.
Cut the lower corner for drainage and air flow. In hot weather, carefully punch more air holes, 1/2 inch slits (1.2cm), or smaller, will work.
Don’t be disappointed by losing fruit to the animals; spend the time bagging it!
Another tip is to put red Christmas tree ornaments around the top of the tomato cage. The birds will peck at them, be confused and leave your tomatoes alone.




Homemade organic pesticides for tomatoes


Tomato plants can suffer from insect infestations, including flea beetles, tomato hornworms and other leaf-chewing insects, aphids, whitefly and mites, as well as fungal diseases, such as early blight and powdery mildew. When growing tomatoes, you also have to battle common garden problems with weeds and pesky slugs. Make your own inexpensive organic pesticides to manage and control these tomato-growing challenges.

Insect and Mite Control
To manage problems with aphids and mites, try a pesticide made with rhubarb leaves. Simply boil rhubarb leaves in water for 20 minutes, and when cool strain into a spray bottle. A mild dishwashing soap can be added as well. For managing leaf-chewing pests, mix up mashed chili peppers, chopped onion and a head of minced garlic. Allow to steep in water for 24 hours before straining and spraying tomato plants. To curb attacks from tomato hornworms and other leaf cutters, make a mash of marigold leaves and flowers, and soak in water for 24 hours. Strain the solids, and add another 1.5 quarts of water plus a pinch of liquid castille soap before spraying. For problems with beetles, caterpillars, whitefly and any soft-bodied insect pest, use a mix of water, cayenne peppers and chopped horseradish root.

Fungal Prevention
Fungal diseases, like powdery mildew, can be prevented using a spray made of baking soda or potassium bicarbonate, horticultural oil and water. If you don’t have horticultural oil, citrus oil or molasses makes a good substitute. In addition, milk deters powdery mildew. Mix 1 part of milk to 9 parts of water in a spray bottle for easy application. Cornmeal also can be used to manage fungal infections. Mix 1 cup of cornmeal with 5 gallons of water, strain, and then spray on tomato plants. For warding off early blight, mix 2 tablespoons each of cooking oil, organic baby shampoo and baking soda with 1 gallon of water, and then spray both sides of the leaves for best prevention.

Other Garden Pests
To rid tomato gardens of weeds, try some home remedies. For the first, mix 1 gallon of vinegar with orange oil, molasses and liquid soap. The second option is to add 1 pound of salt to 1 gallon of boiling water. When using these weed killers, make sure they do not come in contact with tomato plants. They cannot discriminate between good plants and weeds. For managing troublesome slugs, add beer to shallow dishes placed low to the ground around tomatoes. Overnight, slugs will crawl in for a drink and drown.

Application Concerns
Always remember that any pesticide — whether homemade and organic or a commercial chemical product bought from the garden center — can be dangerous to humans and animals as well as to plants, if not used correctly. Rhubarb leaves, for example, are extremely poisonous and fatal if ingested. Sprays made with hot chili peppers can irritate skin and eyes and should not be inhaled. Oily sprays should not be applied to tomato leaves when in direct sun, or the plants can suffer sun damage. A good rule of thumb is to apply a pesticide to just a small area of the plant first as a test.


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This should be a very interesting article for those practicing bokashi composting at home. If you aren’t familiar with bokashi composting, we have an excellent bokashi composting overview here. Most people doing bokashi composting get hung up on bokashi bran. Places selling bokashi supplies will always sell bokashi bran to go with the bin. It tends to be expensive, and you have to keep buying it! Fortunately, you can make your own bran very easily.

However this is where people get hung up again. Nearly all bokashi bran recipes call for using “wheat bran” as the main ingredient. If you don’t live in the states, this can be hard to find and quite expensive. However we are fortunate again, because you don’t actually have to use wheat, or any other type of bran! To know why, go back to the principles of bokashi bran.

What is Bokashi Bran?
When you are making bokashi compost, to make sure the correct organisms proliferate, you use bokashi bran! This bran, saturated with the correct mix of organisms, is applied when you add more materials to the bin. This ensures that as you add materials, you also add more “good” microbes to keep the system on track, and prevent bad anaerobes from taking over. So what is bokashi bran? It is simply a mixture, normally kinda dry and crumbly when purchased from the store, that contains beneficial microbes. With this definition, we’ve gained quite a bit of freedom from the restrictive descriptions typically used for bokashi bran. Now that we know what bokashi bran is (based on defining what it is used for), let’s look at how to make it.

So bokashi bran in this context is simply a substrate that contains a live (or dormant at least) culture of microbes ready to ferment your kitchen scraps. To start with you will need the base substrate. This can be any carbon-rich medium. I have seen newspapers used, sawdust, all types of bran, etc. Let’s look at a list of possible substrates:

Coffee grounds
Wood chips or sawdust
Bran (wheat, barley, oat, rice, etc varieties)
Rice hulls
Groundnut cake (residue left after oil is extracted from nuts)
Coco coir (coco peat)
Peat moss
You get the idea. Anything with a decent amount of carbon in it, that won’t physically or chemically change too much during fermentation. You want a substrate that the organisms can grow and persist on.

Note: In this article I want to make bokashi bran as simple and flexible as possible. Not all substrate is the same. A nice rich substrate like bran or groundnut cake is more ideal than something completely inert like biochar. For example wheat gluten (present in wheat bran) produces very high levels of gluconic acid upon fermentation, which is an excellent organic acid for your garden and animals. But it’s still possible to make bran with any of the above, so go nuts!

Principles of Bokashi Bran
Let’s look at the 3 basic principles of bokashi bran: correct organisms, good nutrients, and proper moisture level. As long as you get these 3 factors covered, you are on the right track to making your own bokashi bran at home.

The Organisms
Bokashi composting relies on a diverse group of anaerobic (non-oxygen breathing) organisms to ferment the materials in a sealed, oxygen-free environment. Certain organisms are required for a healthy bokashi system to work, most notably Lactobacillus (though many others are beneficial, like Actinomyces, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, and more). Ideally you can include many anaerobic organisms, but at the very least you need Lactobacillus species, the main workhorses in fermentation.

To ensure you have a good group of organisms, start with a culture. You can make your own mix of Beneficial Indigenous Microorganisms (BIM), or you can follow our recipe on how to make lactobacillus. This is the most ideal way to begin, because you start with a good healthy culture of microbes.

If you can’t make a full serum like lacto or BIM, at the very least leave a nutrient broth out for a few days to get it infected with your local microbes. Any complex carbohydrate will do (e.g. rice wash from the lacto recipe). Then use that broth to inoculate the substrate you’re using for bran.

Nutrients for Fermentation
For the beneficial bacteria to dominate, you need to provide a simple carbohydrate source. This basic source of energy allows the beneficial bacteria to quickly multiply and outcompete other microbes. Ultimately they produce acids and other compounds that inhibit growth of other organisms like fungi.

So any simple carbohydrate will work – sugars like molasses (this is the best option), brown/white sugar, jaggery, syrup, honey (not ideal since it has anti-microbial properties), etc – think sweet.

Correct Moisture Level
Bacteria need moisture to multiply. So you need to provide them with a nice moist environment. Preferably 60% moisture level or higher. If your substrate is dry, add water to bring up the moisture. If your substrate is already wet, you don’t need to add much water (while you can’t really add too much water, just avoid making a wet goopy mess if you can, haha).

Making Your Own Bokashi Bran
Using the ingredients above, you can make your own bokashi bran very easily at home. Here is the basic recipe:

Combine 3 ingredients in this ratio:
1 part substrate
1/3rd part sugar
1/20th part microbe inoculant (max)
Water until at least 60% moisture level
Seal in an anaerobic container – pack in to eliminate all air spaces
Leave in shady sheltered space for at least 30 days (minimum 30 days but no maximum – you can leave it forever as long as you keep it anaerobic)
That’s it. Combine your ingredients and seal it up to make sure it stays anaerobic while it ferments.

How to Use Bokashi Bran
You can use bokashi bran in the garden directly, but it is more commonly used to inoculate batches of bokashi – kitchen scraps, compost, animal feed, or whatever type of bokashi you are making.

Used for Bokashi Composting
To use bokashi bran in your bokashi bin, mix it with the ingredients you will ferment. This is done in layers sometimes, as you can see in this tower of finished bokashi compost about to be mixed into my traditional compost pile:
Bokashi – Layer Style
This style of bokashi is made in layers – each layer of bokashi ingredients is alternated with a layer of bokashi bran
Or you can mix up all the ingredients together, as you can see in this animal feed bokashi I made for the dog/roaches:
Bokashi – Mixed Style
In this style of bokashi, the bokashi ingredients are mixed together with the bokashi bran
How Much Bokashi Bran to Use?? This really depends on what you are fermenting. If you are bokashi composting biologically rich stuff like aging meats and dairy, compost, manure (you have to be very careful with this one, not recommended for beginners), you would use more bran relative to what you are bokashi composting. For less microbe rich items such as vegetables, fruits, nuts, berries and fresh meat, you can use less bran. Also, the amount of bran you need depends on the quality of your bokashi bran, the richness and diversity of healthy microbial populations. You can see it’s a little complex. Just use 50% bokashi bran to start with if you’re using homemade bran. You can ease off from there as you get more comfortable.

Applied Directly to Garden
To apply directly to the garden, bury the bran at least a few inches deep in the soil, where it will quickly decompose (assuming it has some nutrients in it and isn’t inert, like biochar).

Applied in Compost Tea
You can also use bokashi bran in Compost Tea. You can add to your compost tea at 1/2 tbsp per gallon (a bit less than 1 tsp per Liter) at the start of the brewing cycle. You can use a bit more if you are brewing compost tea using a suspended bag method.

Applied as a Traditional Composting Aid
If you have a compost pile, especially if it got too wet, too compacted, or other anaerobic microbe favoring condition, bokashi bran can be an excellent addition to help keep the anaerobes healthy and in balance. Mix your bran into you compost pile in the areas you feel are at risk of developing anaerobic populations of microbes.

Composting Your Bokashi Bran
Composting your bokashi bran can be an excellent way to quickly break it down into a soil and plant-ready form. For example you can turn coffee grounds into bokashi bran, and they will be fermented coffee grounds. Their nutrients will be broken down a bit but not fully. To really liberate all the nutritional content of the coffee grounds, you would want to compost them before adding to your planter beds.

Bokashi Bran Summary
Now you know all about bokashi bran! Particularly, the basic principles of making bokashi bran at home. Since we have the basics, we can make bokashi bran no matter where we live, using ingredients that are extremely cheap and available. For example, Starbucks coffee chains gives out their used coffee grounds for free to anyone interested. Therefore, in cities like Manila, Philippines, you can pick up bokashi bran starter anywhere you have a starbucks store. For free! In the provinces here in the Philippines, there are other potential substrates available: rice bran (best), rice straw, coco coir, rice hulls, etc. Think about equivalent products where you live – agricultural byproducts make great gardening supplies, and bokashi bran is no exception.

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MANURE : A natural organic fertilizer

Manure is an excellent fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. It also adds organic matter to the soil which may improve soil structure, aeration, soil moisture-holding capacity, and water infiltration.

To determine how much manure is needed for a specific application, the nutrient content and the rate nitrogen becomes available for plant uptake needs to be estimated. Nutrient content of manure varies depending on source, moisture content, storage, and handling methods.

Nitrogen content in manure varies with the type of animal and feed ration, amount of litter, bedding or soil included, and amount of urine concentrated with the manure.

Moisture content is also a major consideration. For example: The moisture content of fresh manure is around 70% to 85%. The moisture content of air-dried manure is around 9% to 15%. As manure dries, the nutrients not only concentrate on a weight basis, but also on a volume basis due to structural changes (settling) of the manure. Volatilization of urine nitrogen can result in considerable loss of nitrogen, up to 50% or more of the total nitrogen.

Generally, dry manure contains 1.5 to 2.2 cubic meters per ton. Dry poultry and steer manure contain around 1.9 cubic meters per ton.

Manure Handling

Handling can affect the fertilizer value of manure, particularly its nitrogen content. Nitrogen is present in manure in a variety of forms, most of which gradually converts to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen.

The ammonium form can be lost to the air and the nitrates leached by rainfall.

Ammonium losses can be minimized by not stockpiling manure while it is moist, minimizing its handling, and working it under immediately after spreading. Ammonia can be lost to the air each time manure is moved or hauled. Much of the loss is from hydrolysis of the NH2 groups (enzymatic) and then volatilization of N20 and NH3.

This loss can be very high when spreading manure, especially during warm, dry weather. Here, at least 50% of the ammonium nitrogen can be lost within 12 hours. Studies have also shown that, by one week after spreading, almost 100% of the ammonium nitrogen can be lost.

This loss can represent up to 50% of the total nitrogen available in stockpiled manure. Therefore, the importance of simultaneously spreading and working in manure is obvious.

Nutrient Availability and Manure Application

Manure is a source of many nutrients including: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and many others. However, nitrogen is often the main nutrient of concern for most crops. Potassium deficiency is usually quite localized within a field and would not be corrected with common rates of manure.

However, some improvement might be expected with high rates above 10 tons per acre. The high rates needed to correct a potassium (K) deficiency would supply an excess amount of nitrogen for many crops, and this should be avoided. (See Table 1)

 Table 1. (Typical)


































































































Rates of Manure for Nitrogen Needs

The nitrogen compounds in manure are eventually converted to the available nitrate form. Nitrate is soluble and is moved into the root zone with water. It is the same form ultimately available to plants from commercial nitrogen fertilizers.

However, the release of available nitrogen from the complete organic compounds during manure decomposition is very gradual. This slow release of nitrogen is manure’s most important asset. It extends nitrogen availability and reduces leaching — of particular importance in sandy soils.

The idea is to first apply enough manure to meet the first year’s need of available nitrogen. Decreasing amounts are then applied in following years because of the carry-over organic nitrogen that will be released from previous applications. If the same rate of manure is applied each year, it is possible for a field originally low in nitrogen to accumulate unnecessarily high levels in successive years.

The nitrogen in poultry manure is in released fastest, about 90% is released in the first year.

Fresh manure which contains both the urine and solid portions and has a large amount of urea or uric acid provides a somewhat slower release rate, with approximately 75% of the total nitrogen released the first year.

An even more gradual nitrogen release can be expected from dry feedlot steer manure, with only 35% of the total nitrogen released the first year.

Benefits Of Manure

Use of Manures, in the garden is a popular practice in many rural areas. This type of manure is not as rich in nitrogen as many other types; however, the high ammonia levels can burn plants when the fresh manure is directly applied. Composted cow manure, on the other hand, can provide numerous benefits to the garden.

Cow dung is high in organic materials and rich in nutrients. It contains NPK. Cow dung Manure is one of the best forms of natural fertilizer. 

 With rising demand for chemical free food and growing acceptance of organic farming, cow dung forms a very important link in chemical free farming.

Manurehas several benefits. Composted cow manure will add generous amounts of organic matter to your soil. mixing this compost into the soil, you can improve its moisture-holding capacity.

His allows you to water less frequently, as the roots of plants can use the additional water and nutrients whenever needed.

Additionally, it will improve aeration in soil, also contains beneficial bacteria, which convert nutrients into easily accessible forms so they can be slowly released without burning tender plant roots.

Composting cow manure also produces about a third less greenhouse gases, making it environmentally friendly. cow dung makes an excellent growing medium for garden plants. When turned into compost and fed to plants and vegetables.



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Seedless watermelon

Where Do Seedless Watermelons Come From?

The seedless watermelon is now a reality. Seedless watermelons–sweet inside but without the numerous seeds found in conventional watermelons–are the ultimate in convenience foods.
Seed Production. The obvious question asked about growing seedless watermelons is: “How does one obtain seed of a seedless watermelon?” Obviously, you cannot save seed from a seedless watermelon. So, where do the seeds come from? Simply stated, the number of chromosomes (the threadlike bodies within cells that contain the inheritance units called genes) in a normal watermelon plant is doubled by the use of the chemical colchicine. Doubling a normal (diploid) watermelon results in a tetraploid plant (one having four sets of chromosomes). When the tetraploid plant is bred back, or pollinated, by a diploid or normal plant, the resulting seed produces a triploid plant that is basically a “mule” of the plant kingdom, and it produces seedless watermelons. Seed of seedless varieties are available from most major seed companies.
General Climatic Requirements. Seedless watermelons are a warm-season crop, preferring relatively high temperatures for optimum growth. Daytime temperatures of 80 to 95 degrees F. and night temperatures of 60 to 70 degrees F. are best. When temperatures are lower, plant growth is slowed considerably. With favorable weather, seeded fields can produce ripe fruit in 85 to 100 days.

Planting. Poor seed germination is the main problem with growing seedless watermelons. When direct seeding, the soil temperature should be minimum of 70 degrees F. at a depth of 4 inches. Soil temperatures below 70 degree F. will reduce germination and emergence. When growing transplants, use 12- to 2-inch seedling cells or peat pellets. Soak the planting medium thoroughly, and let drain 4 to 6 hours before sowing. Plant 1 or 2 seeds per cell or pellet. The greenhouse temperature should be 75 to 85 degrees F. during the germination period. Do not allow the growing medium to become dry, but do not over water during initial germination. Begin watering, as needed, after 10 to 15 percent of the seedlings have emerged. Plants should be ready for transplanting in 3 to 4 weeks. Transplants should have not more than 3 true leaves when set in the field. Use of older, larger transplants can cause slow, stunted growth and poor yields. In-row and between-row spacing is generally 48 X 80 inches.

Pollination. The male and female flowers are born separately on the watermelon plant. Female flowers must be pollinated for fruit to set. Also, cross pollination must occur between a seedless and a regular type watermelon for seedless fruit to be produced. This is best accomplished by planting a standard watermelon variety in the garden. Approximately one-third of the plants in the garden should be of the standard or ‘pollinator’ variety. Honey bees are the principal insects that pollinate watermelons. Pollination is a must, and poor or partial pollination may result in misshapen fruit and no seedless melons.

Harvesting. The lower side or ‘ground spot’ of the fruit should be cream-colored or yellowish. Thump fruit to check for ripeness. The result will vary. Generally, a solid sound indicates ripeness, while a sharp echoing sound indicates a greener fruit. The tendril or ‘tail’ which occurs in the axils of leaves (where the leaf attaches to the vine) along the stem can be used as an indicator of ripeness. Experienced harvesters say that if the 2 tendrils nearest the fruit are dry, the seedless watermelon is ripe. It is important to note that the first few mature melons in the garden may frequently contain small seeds. This condition is most prevalent under stressed conditions, such as low soil moisture, insufficient fertilizer, temperature extremes, or disease pressure, which affect normal plant development.

Each planting of seedless watermelons actually produces 3 different types of watermelons — the regular seeded watermelons (from pollinator plants), the true seedless melons, and a light-green tetraploid melon that produces a very limited number of seeds, from which next year’s planting can be made.
Source : Texas Agriculture




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Water melon

How to grow watermelon ???

Every gardener should plant a hill or two of watermelons as they are easy to grow and, oh so good on sultry summer afternoons.

Try a small variety such as an eight-pound ‘Seedless Big Tast Hybrid’ that will fit in the refrigerator easily, or go for the glory and sow watermelon seeds for a whopper like the 30-pound ‘Million Bucks Hybrid’. Heirloom fans will want to plant ‘Moon and Stars’, introduced in 1926 with a deep green skin speckled with tiny yellow stars and quarter-size moons. The leaves are speckled with yellow stars as well. If you don’t have room in the garden for watermelon vines, think about growing them in the middle of the lawn. Yes, in the middle of the lawn. Simply dump two 40-pound bags of composted cow manure and one 40-pound bag of topsoil into a heap on the lawn. Mix and mound with a trowel or by hand to integrate all materials. Water well and plant 6 to 8 seeds and later thin to three plants. The vines will ramble all over the lawn, and you will have to mow around them. But, the watermelon foliage will shade most of the grass underneath it and slow growth.

After harvest, pull up watermelon vines; rake the nutrient-rich manure mix over the lawn for fertilizer and water well. Within a week, the grass will be growing vigorously again, and it will be a healthy dark green.


Watermelons probably originated almost 5,000 years ago in the Kalahari Desert of Africa where botanists have found its wild ancestors still growing. Watermelons migrated north through Egypt, and during the Roman era they were cultivated and prized. Hieroglyphics on the walls of Egyptian buildings tell stories of their harvest. Watermelons were buried in the tombs of kings to nourish them in the afterlife. Melons spread across the European continent and particularly flourished in the warmer Mediterranean areas. Watermelons were documented in 1629 in Massachusetts. During the Civil War, the Confederate Army boiled watermelon to make molasses for cooking. It is in the Southern states such as the Carolinas and Georgia where watermelons flourish as commercial crops. Numerous varieties were developed, and variations of flesh color surfaced. By the late 1800s, the W. Atlee Burpee & Co. was developing its own watermelon varieties and selling seeds.


Watermelons need a long growing season (at least 80 days) and warm ground for seeds to germinate and grow. Soil should be 70 degrees F or warmer at planting time. Sow seeds 1 inch deep and keep well watered until germination. To get a jumpstart in cooler climates, cover the planting area with black plastic to warm up the soil and start seeds indoors two or three weeks before they are to be set out in the garden. Don’t start seeds any earlier, because large watermelon seedlings transplant poorly. Plant 3 seeds in 3- or 4-inch peat pots or large cell packs, and thin to the best plant. Sow watermelon seeds 1/2 inch deep. Place in a sunny south-facing window or under lights to germinate. Make sure the area is warm?day and night?ideally 80 degrees F. Use a Seedling Heat Mat if necessary.


Watermelon is a space hog; vines can reach 20 feet in length. So plant where there is plenty of open ground. Amend soil with organic matter such as compost or composted cow manure. Add a balanced fertilizer that is high in nitrogen. Sow 8 to 10 watermelon seeds in a hill, and push seeds 1 inch into the soil. Space hills 3 to 4 feet apart, with at least 8 feet between rows. Thin plants to the 3 best in each hill. Keep soil free of weeds by shallow hoeing or with a layer of mulch.

Watermelon plants have moderately deep roots and watering is seldom necessary unless the weather turns dry for a prolonged period. When vines begin to ramble, side dress plants with half a cup of balanced fertilizer (5-10-5). A third application of fertilizer should be made when melons are set. Withhold water as melons start to mature to intensify sweetness.


When vines begin to ramble, give watermelon plants a dose of boron to help them produce sweeter fruits. Dissolve 1 tablespoon of household borax in 1 gallon of water and spray foliage and the base of the plants. Select short-season varieties such as ‘Million Bucks Hybrid’ or ‘Orange Sunshine Hybrid’ if your growing season is less than 90 days. Start watermelon seeds indoors and use black plastic mulch.


Cucumber beetles and vine borers are the worst watermelon pests. Apply an insecticide such as Sevin or use Bacillus thuringensis for organic control. Floating row covers work, too, but they should be removed when watermelon plants start to bloom, at which time pollinating insects must be allowed to reach the flowers.


Knowing how to determine when a watermelon is perfectly ripe is not easy. One way favored by many gardeners is to watch the tendril closest to the melon stem. A tendril is a modified leaf or stem in the shape of slender, spirally coil. When it turns brown and dries up, the melon is ripe. The trouble with this method is that with some watermelon varieties, the tendril dries and drops off more than a week before the melon is fully ripe. Slapping and tapping or thumping are other common methods used to determine ripeness, but they are not always accurate.

The surest sign of ripeness in most watermelon varieties is the color of the bottom spot where the melon sits on the ground. As the watermelon matures, the spot turns from almost white to a rich yellow. Also, all watermelons lose the powdery or slick appearance on the top and take on a dull look when fully ripe. After picking a watermelon, chill it before serving for best flavor. Some folks sprinkle a little salt on their watermelon, but it’s probably thought of as a cure for poor tasting store-bought melons and certainly not necessary for home-grown. If the seeds present a problem, grow seedless watermelon varieties like ‘Seedless Sugar Baby Hybrid’ or ‘Orange Sunshine Hybrid’. A cut melon, if covered with plastic wrap or aluminum foil, will keep several days in the refrigerator.






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Complete Plant Propagation

Complete Plant Propagation

Plant PropagationPropagating plants is an inexpensive and easy way to get new plants from plants you already have. This asexual means of reproduction produces a plant that is genetically identical to its parent.
There are a variety of plant propagation tools and methods; from taking cuttings to layering to dividing and more. The technique you select will depend on the type of plant you wish to propagate and the amount of time and effort you want to put into it.

One of the most amazing things about plants is that every cell has the ability to duplicate all parts and functions of the plant. By taking a cutting of a leaf or stem and creating the right conditions, you can create an entirely new plant (see Plant Anatomy Basics).
Start with a stock or “mother” plant that is in great health and has plenty of stems, so that if one is removed, it will not harm the plant.

Stem Cuttings
Propagation by stem cuttings is the most popular plant propagation method for woody shrubs and ornamental plants. This is also a good technique for houseplants.  (Learn about Indoor Plant Care here.)
Houseplants are often quite easy to propagate. Look for a healthy stem absent of flower buds, disease and insects. Using a sharp, sterile knife make a clean cut at a 45° angle to maximize the rooting area. Cuttings should be about 3-6 inches long (shorter if the plant is small) and include the tip of the stem, and at least two or three sets of leaves attached.
Remove the bottom set of leaves (new roots will often develop from this area) and dip the end you just cut into rooting gel. This will help seal the cut plant tissue and promote new root growth (optional). Then place the cutting into a small pot with moist vermiculite, perlite or other soilless potting mix. Be sure to poke a small hole in the growing medium before placing the cutting into it. This way the rooting solution won’t rub off of the stem.
Keep your new plants warm and in bright light, but out of direct sunlight. Many cuttings will also benefit from added humidity. To increase moisture and create a mini-greenhouse effect, place the pots in a clear plastic bag. Do not let the plastic you use to cover the pots touch the cuttings. Mayonnaise jars, milk cartons, and plastic soda bottles can also be used to cover cuttings.
Once the cuttings have developed roots — this can take a few days or a few months — replant them in another container with moist, but not wet, potting soil. (To identify whether roots have formed or not, pull lightly on the plants. If they pop right out, they are not ready. If you feel some resistance, go ahead and repot.)
Until the new plants have become fully established, carefully monitor the amount of moisture and light they get. Remove dropped leaves and diseased plants from the area as soon as they are noticed to keep fungus from spreading to healthy plants.
Softwood stem cuttings are taken from new branches of shrubs that have not yet become woody (see Propagate Your Shrubs from Softwood Cuttings). The term “softwood” describes the stage of growth on a deciduous woody plant that isn’t brand new (green), nor is it fully mature (woody). It is somewhere in between the two. (Try bending the branch. If it snaps easily, it is ready to go. If it is very flexible and just bends, it is too young and will most likely rot before rooting. If there is no flexibility at all, it is too old and will be very slow to root.)
The best time to take softwood cuttings is from April thru June after it has rained (or you’ve watered). Look for healthy shoots that aren’t too thick or too thin. Using a sharp knife or pruning shears, cut a 2 to 10 inch section of stem at least 1 inch below a leaf node, and including 2 or 3 pairs of leaves. Make a diagonal cut; the larger the cut, the more surface area for roots to develop.

Tip: Dip pruning tools in a mixture of 1 part bleach to 9 parts water to prevent transmitting diseases from infected plants to healthy ones.

Place the cuttings in a container with wet paper towels to keep them moist until you can get to the house (or your potting bench) to plant them. Be sure to take more cuttings than you think you’ll need, as they likely will not all root.
Remove the lower set of leaves, and if you are extra motivated, scrape a little bark from the end of the cutting. Dip the cutting into water and then into rooting hormone, being sure to cover the wounds left by the removal of the leaves.

Note: Using rooting hormone is more important with softwoods than with houseplant cuttings.

Plant cuttings into pots filled with a soilless potting media just deep enough to support the stems and hold them upright. Do NOT use garden soil as it will remain too wet, causing the cutting to rot before rooting.

Recipe: Soilless Mix for Rooting Cuttings

This soilless mix is ideal for rooting cuttings, but should be replaced with a richer potting mix once they show signs of growth.

• One part coconut coir, peat moss or vermiculite
• One part perlite or sterile builders sand

Combine all ingredients with a small amount of water and mix thoroughly until evenly moist. A light solution of organic starter fertilizer or seaweed extract can be added to this recipe.

After the cuttings are planted, you can trim the leaves to about half their size. They’ll still be able to photosynthesize light, but won’t lose so much water through transpiration.

Place the containers in a plastic bag to raise the humidity level around the cuttings, or purchase a misting system to keep your new plants adequately moist. After about 6 weeks check to see if roots have formed. If the containers you are planting in are small you may notice roots protruding through the drainage holes. Otherwise, give the plant a gentle tug. If the plant pulls right out it isn’t ready — replant it. It you feel resistance, it’s ready to be repotted.

Note: Because soft stem cuttings are taken from young plant tissue they form roots relatively quickly. However, they require high humidity levels to keep from drying out.

Transplant your tiny new shrubs into larger pots with a mixture of 80% organic potting soil and 20% perlite. Water with an organic liquid fertilizer that is seaweed or kelp-based. Slowly “harden off” plants before transplanting outside. Learn how to harden off plants here.

Hardwood stem cuttings are taken after the plant tissue has grown woody and when the plant is dormant. The best time to take hardwood cuttings is late fall — after a killing frost — or anytime during the winter months.

Look for healthy, vigorous stock plants growing in full sunlight. Again, stems that are not too thin or too thick work best. A minimum girth of 1/4 to 1/2 inch and a length of 4-8 inches is recommended. Cuttings should be taken a few inches below the terminal bud. Use a straight cut on the top end of the stem, slightly above a bud, and an angled cut at the bottom end, just below a bud. Discard the tip of the shoot. Always take more cuttings than you think you’ll need as they may not all take root.

Note: There are three types of hardwood cuts: the straight cut, the heel and the mallet. (For a diagram of each see Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings – Figure 3.) A straight, or simple cut, is used most often. The heel cut includes a small section of older wood and the mallet cutting includes an entire section of older stem.
Dip the cut ends in rooting powder and place the stems 2-6 inches apart in a container filled with a moist soilless potting mix. Plant the stems deep in the mix, so that only the top one or two buds are showing above the surface.

Tip: Make sure that the stems are planted upwards by burying the angled cut into the pot (the straight cut should be on top).

Water, cover with a plastic bag and place the cuttings in indirect sunlight. Rooting will occur more quickly if they are misted on a regular basis. Once plenty of roots and some top growth have developed, remove the plastic covering and transplant the young plants into a larger container or a protected bed. Do not plant directly in the landscape, yet, rather wait until early the following season when your plants are much larger and stronger.

Leaf Cuttings
Several herbaceous or woody plants, including many indoor houseplants, can be propagated from leaf cuttings. With this method, a leaf and its stem (petiole) or sometimes just a piece of the leaf are used to create an entirely new plant. The directions for propagation by leaf cuttings are basically the same as for softwood or hardwood stem cuttings and can be performed any time of year.
Select a healthy, full grown leaf from a vigorously growing plant and remove it along with about 1-1/2 inches of its stem. Dip the cut portion in rooting hormone and plant the entire stem (up to the bottom of the leaf) at an angle in a moist soilless rooting medium. After planting water thoroughly to settle the potting mix around the plant.
As with the other cutting techniques, place the container in a plastic bag to increase humidity and keep it in a cool place (about 70°F) out of direct sunlight. After 4-6 weeks new roots will form and the plant can be moved to a larger container.

Note: Many times several plants will grow from the same leaf cutting. Carefully separate these young plants from the “parent” leaf and transplant them into their own container.

Root Cuttings
Root cuttings are best taken when the plant is dormant and the roots are chock-full of carbohydrates.
Take 1 to 4-inch long cuttings from younger root growth that is about 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick. Cut straight through the end of the root nearest to the stem and cut the other end at an angle. This way you will remember which end is the top (the straight cut) and which is the bottom (the diagonal cut). Roots will not grow if you plant them upside down.
Store cuttings in a moist rooting medium at 40°F. After three weeks, remove the cuttings from storage and bury them upright under 2-3 inches of soilless potting mix. Place the container in a plastic bag and put the whole thing somewhere with bright, indirect sunlight. When roots become established and weather permits, harden the new plants off and transplant them outside. Learn more about transplanting and handling plants here.

Tip: If cuttings are from fine or small roots, simply scatter them over the surface of the potting mix and cover them lightly.

Greenhouse Growing SupliesLayering
Layering is a way to grow new plants from existing plants without having to take any cuttings. In a nutshell, bury part of a stem or branch in the soil and new roots and shoots will form. This method is often more successful than propagating from cuttings, because the new plant can get water and food from the stock plant. Once the new plant is established, it can be moved to another spot in the garden.

Simple Layering
Most plants with low growing branches or stems, such as vines and woody shrubs, take well to simple layering. Use a dormant branch in early spring or a mature branch in late summer.
Bend a flexible, low-growing branch to the ground and place it in a small hole about 4-inches deep. Remove leaves and side-shoots from the portion of the branch that will be buried and cover it with soil. You may need to place a rock on top of the soil to hold the branch underground. It is important to leave at least 6-12 inches of the branch tip out of the soil and stake it upright to keep it growing straight — this will be the top portion of your new plant!
Usually, the bend in the buried portion of the branch is enough to encourage rooting, but by scraping, or wounding, the bark on its underside, you can help speed rooting along. Keep the layered area moist and free of weeds and within a season or two a root mass will have developed. Cut the layered section from the plant and it’s ready for transplanting.

Tip Layering
Ideal for blackberries and raspberries, tip layering should be done in late summer and is a lot like simple layering. However, instead of keeping the tip of the plant above ground, you bury it in a hole 3-4 inches deep. At first, the tip will grow downward, but then it will make a sharp turn and grow upwards toward the sun.

In late fall or early spring, after roots have developed and new shoots appear, tip layers can be cut from the original plant and moved to a new area in the garden.

Compound (Serpentine) Layering
Compound layering involves burying several parts of one stem and works well with vining plants or plants with pliable branches. Bend the stem towards the ground as you would if simple layering, but alternately cover and expose sections of the stem. The end result should look like your stem is snaking its way through the soil.

Each section of the compound layer should have one bud exposed and another bud buried. Wound or scrape the bottom side of each covered section to promote rooting. Cut plants apart when they have developed roots and replant them early in the growing season.

Mound (Stool) Layering
If you have closely branched or heavy-stemmed shrubs and rootstock of tree fruits that you’d like to propagate, try mound layering. During the dormant season, prune the plant back to approximately 1-inch above the soil surface.
The following spring, the trimmed plant will produce new shoots. Cover these shoots with soil, creating a 7 to 9-inch mound around the stock plant. Roots will grow at the bases of the new, buried shoots. In the fall or following spring, carefully separate and transplant the newly developed plants.

Air Layering
Air layering can be used on many larger houseplants, as well as woody ornamental plants, such as holly, rhododendron and lilac. For best results, start air layers in the spring on stems from the previous year’s growth or during the summer months on the current season’s growth.

Using an upper branch or stem, select a site just below a leaf node and remove the leaves and twigs both below and above that point for 3-4 inches. Scrape away a small area of bark, or make a cut about 1-1/2 inches long and 1/3 of the way through the stem. Apply a rooting compound, such as Clonex® to the exposed area to promote root production. Use roughly a handful of moist sphagnum moss to surround the wound and wrap the moss with black plastic. Seal the plastic on all sides with tape or twisty ties, making sure that the moss does not extend beyond the cover.
Once the roots are well formed (usually 1-3 months for houseplants; 1-2 seasons for outdoor plants) cut the stem just below the bag and pot the new plant as you would any seedling. After a couple of months the young plant should be hardy enough to transplant outside. Click on this link to learn more about air layering for difficult to root plants.

Propagation by division is cutting or breaking up a group of suckers or a crown or clump into smaller segments. It is important that each plant segment has a bud or it will not propagate. Most perennials benefit from division as they get older and begin to lose vigor, plus you get more plants to spread around the garden or share with friends. While there are different techniques for dividing perennials, the general rules are the same.

Divide fall-flowering perennials in spring and spring-and summer-flowering perennials in fall. For fall division, plan to do it early in the season as the plants will need 4-6 weeks to become established before the ground freezes. In the spring, divide early. Plants will benefit from the cool, wet weather and be well established before the heat of the summer kicks in.
Two or three days before dividing a plant, water it thoroughly — this will help reduce the stress of division — then cut the plant back so it doesn’t lose too much moisture.
Dig all the way around the perimeter of the plant and gently pull it out of the ground. If you find a huge root ball that you can’t lift, go ahead and cut it through the middle with your shovel. If the plant has a spreading root system, you can probably just pull it apart. Plants that have rhizomes (horizontal, underground stems), can be divided with a sharp knife.
Place the plant segments into a bucket of water right away so there isn’t a chance for them to dry out. While the plants are soaking, dig a hole at least as deep as the plant was originally set. Add peat moss, organic compost or aged chicken manure to give the plant a little edge as it gets established.
Settle the plant segment into the hole and fill with amended soil. Water well. Adding a thick layer of mulch will help the new plant through its first winter, but be sure to pull away some of the mulch in the spring to allow the soil to warm.

Bulbs and Corms
Plants that grow from bulbs can be propagated by taking small offsets or bulblets from the base of the parent bulb. Place the bulblets in light, rich soil and let develop for 2 or 3 years. The same procedure used for propagating bulbs works for plants with corms (see “What is a Plant Corm?“).
Another method that is popular for propagating nontunicate bulbs, such as lilies, is known as scaling. Pick a healthy bulb and trim off the old roots to prevent rot. Be careful not to damage the tough base of the bulb where the roots emerge called the basal plate.
Gently peel several of the outside scales away from the main bulb. Each segment should have part of the basal plate so new roots can grow. Toss out any pieces that do not have a basal plate.
Put the scales into a bag of moist, but not wet, vermiculite. Use a ratio of 4 parts vermiculite per scale. Leaving some air in the bag, seal it up and put it somewhere with a temperature of about 70°F. If you choose to use a fungicide, dust the scales before inserting them into the bag.
Check regularly for rot, and after 8-10 weeks tiny bulblets should be noticed at the base of the scales. Plant the scales 1/2-inch deep in a container filled with organic potting soil. Keep the plants in a warm, bright spot and make sure the soil stays moist. New leaves will shoot up in the spring. When these leaves die back at the end of the growing season, separate and replant the new bulbs.
Summary from various source

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